Proclaiming a black nationalist "Back to Africa" message, Garvey and the UNIA established branches in thirty-eight states by the early s. While chapters existed in the larger urban areas such as New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles, Garvey's message reached into small towns across the country as well.
Samuel Murrell Overview One of the four large islands of the Caribbean archipelago, Jamaica measures 4, square miles, slightly smaller than the size of Connecticut. Its mountainous terrain, which exceeds 7, feet at its Blue Mountain peak, makes traveling from one end of the island to another more interesting than one would expect.
The island is well known for its rich-tasting Blue Mountain coffee and its bauxite mining and aluminum processing industries. As many as 90 percent of all Jamaicans can lay claim to African ancestry. About 26 percent of the population is mixed and approximately nine percent is composed of people of Chinese, European, and East Indian descent.
Intermarriage among races over centuries accounts for the diverse physical features of Jamaicans. In addition to English, many Jamaicans speak Patois pronounced patwa —or what Jamaican intellectuals call Jamaican Talk—a mixture of English and African dialects. Jamaica was once called a "Christian country" because approximately 80 percent of its citizens have some form of association with Christianity.
Protestants have traditionally outnumbered Catholics by a wide margin and Rastafarianism, a twentieth-century religious movement, claims a following of approximately eight percent of the population. In Columbus claimed the island for Spain and inJuan de Esquivel began transporting Jamaican Arawaks to Hispaniola as slaves.
Within a few decades, the original population, which was made extinct by European disease, kidnapping, enslavement, and genocidal methods of war, was later replaced by Africans.
From until the early s Jamaica served as a sparsely populated Spanish-held way station for galleons en route to Cuba and the Spanish Main. It became the headquarters for pirate ships.
After a failed expedition to the larger Spanish Caribbean, British Admiral Penn and General Vernables captured the island in and driving off the Spaniards. Later Spain officially ceded Jamaica to Britain at the Treaty of Madrid, and the British then left the island to the pirates until Known as Maroons, they were an organized band of fierce-fighting fugitive slaves who hampered British rule until a peace treaty was executed with them in Britain turned the island into a vast sugar plantation based on slave labor.
Since the British one-crop sugar economy in Barbados was in sharp decline bymany planters in Barbados relocated to Jamaica with their slaves. They were followed by hundreds of British colonizers and hundreds of thousands of enslaved Africans. In the slave population exceededand produced 78, tons of sugar.
However, when the slave trade was abolished inblacks outnumbered whites by as many as ten to one. Prior towhen slavery was abolished, blacks in Jamaica fought a bitter and often futile battle to free themselves from the savage institution of slavery. For centuries, they menaced British troops, looted plantations, and carried off slave recruits to the precipitous mountains in retaliation against abuses.
Their successful guerrilla warfare abated in and when Maroon chiefs signed peace treaties with the British government. As the anti-slavery campaign in Britain heated up in the slave population gathered in large numbers in Afro-Christian Baptist circles—the most vocal anti-slavery organization in Jamaica—in anticipation of freedom.
A different kind of revolt called the Baptist War occurred in Jamaica in Sam Sharpe, a black Baptist lay preacher, perceived that "free paper" had come but the government was concealing it from the slaves.
He led a large revolt in western Jamaica, which resulted in massive destruction of property and a bloody and brutal repression by the government.Robert A. Hill is director of the Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers Project in the African Studies Center at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he is also Associate Professor of History.
Marcus Garvey Life and Lessons: A Centennial Companion to the Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL) is a black nationalist fraternal organization founded in in the United States by Marcus Mosiah Garvey, a Jamaican vetconnexx.com Pan-African organization enjoyed its greatest strength in the s, and was influential in the United States prior to Garvey's deportation to Jamaica in ANC Women’s League - The Bantu Women’s League (BWL), a forerunner of the ANC Women’s League, was formed in in response to a government plan to reintroduce pass laws for women.
It fought for the rights of black women and participated in civil disobedience campaigns. In , the ANC accepted women into its membership and . Jamaican political leader, who was a staunch proponent of the Black nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, founder the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL), founder of the Black Star Line, which promoted the return of the African diaspora to their ancestral lands.
Marcus Garvey, "The Negro Moses" Robert A. Hill – University of California, Los Angeles. Marcus Garvey is regarded as the leader of the largest organized mass movement in black history and the progenitor of the modern Black Is Beautiful revival that reached . Illustration courtesy of the Department of History, Howard University (*) excerpted with permission from the Howard University History Department. The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL) is a black nationalist fraternal organization founded in in the United States by Marcus Mosiah Garvey, a Jamaican vetconnexx.com Pan-African organization enjoyed its greatest strength in the s, and was influential in the United States prior to Garvey.
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