Description[ edit ] Technical reports are today major source of scientific and technical information. They are prepared for internal or wider distribution by many organizations, most of which lack the extensive editing and printing facilities of commercial publishers. Technical reports are often prepared for sponsors of research projects.
References provide support for statements and add credibility to writing. The rules for what needs a citation are an academic tradition, but are rarely stated explicitly: All direct quotations from another author Technical and report writing be cited. The writer has no discretion in this matter: It is highly recommended that authors always include the indicia of a quotation [i.
It is not an acceptable defense to plagiarism to claim that the author forgot to include the indicia of a quotation. All substantial information taken from another source should be cited. There are four reasons for this: The meaning of "substantial information" in 2 is deduced on a case-by-case basis by considering the four reasons.
If at least one of the reasons is appropriate or desirable, then a reference should be used. However, one does not give a reference for well-known facts e. The appropriate test is whether any person with an undergraduate education in the appropriate specialty would immediately recognize the fact: Let us take a moment to expand on item 2b above.
If the writer doubts the truth of the information, then the writer should indicate to the reader the basis for those doubts. This can be accomplished diplomatically by making a "on the one hand Doubts can also be raised and at least partly resolved by discussing alternative interpretations.
The point is that the writer can not just serve the reader some cited material and then walk away from the mess: If a complete resolution of the facts is not possible, then the writer has an obligation to say so.
Some types of statements beg for a citation. For example, It is commonly believed that It is widely known that The conventional wisdom is that These assertions need a citation of at least one I prefer three references that support the assertion.
These references may be to textbooks, which are rarely cited in professional literature in other contexts. There are two reasons for requiring a reference to this type of statement: What kind of literature should be referenced?
It is preferred that all references be archival material: There is one test for "archival": Is it retained permanently by many major technical libraries? In general, any paper that is listed in standard databases e. In addition, patents and government reports qualify as archival materials, although they are often not considered scholarly materials.
Engineering standards, although they are important, are not archival: It is almost impossible to locate a copy of an obsolete or withdrawn standard, unless one knows an old engineer who has a copy in the filing cabinet! For these reasons, standards are not archival documents. However, if one needs to cite to conventional good engineering practice or to cite to a performance specification, then one can cite engineering standards.
These materials are of an ephemeral nature and definitely not archival: A trade magazine is a periodical that is characterized by an abundance of 1 advertisements and 2 articles written by a employee of manufacturer X about a specific product of manufacturer X.Research & writing for assignments.
University assignments are a big challenge, but we can guide you. Get help with all aspects of your assignment, from research to writing. Return to Schedule ↑ Advanced Technical Communication & Information Design Courses NWTW | Fundamentals of Technical Writing.
This 9-week course examines the basic requirements of technical style and organizational patterns used in a variety of business and technical documents.
ABSTRACT Mechanics of writing a technical report is explained in a pseudo report format. The purpose of this pseudo report is to explain the contents of a typical engineering report. Technical Writing from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.
The course develops technical writing skills necessary to communicate information gained through a process of technical or experimental work. The course highlights the factors. A report is a piece of informative writing, while an essay writing is structured around an introduction, body, conclusion, and the essay itself.
While a report always goes to the process of identifying and evaluating the extent of issues in a report, essays focus is slightly different.
Technical reports are a vital tool for engineers to communicate their ideas.
This online course introduces technical report writing and teaches the techniques you need .