Holloway Many studies have shown that family characteristics can significantly affect children's development and school achievement.
Approximate representation of numerical magnitude, and Precise representation of the quantity of individual items.
Approximate representations of numerical magnitude imply that one can relatively estimate and comprehend an amount if the number is large see Approximate number Socioeconomic influences on learning and development.
For example, one experiment showed children and adults arrays of many dots. However, distinguishing differences between large numbers of dots proved to be more challenging. The experimenter then covered each pile with a cup.
When allowed to choose a cup, the infant always chose the cup with more crackers because the infant could distinguish the difference. For example, neither allows representations of fractions or negative numbers. More complex representations require education.
However, achievement in school mathematics correlates with an individual's unlearned approximate number sense.
More sophisticated numeracy skills include understanding of ratio concepts notably fractions, proportions, percentages, and probabilitiesand knowing when and how to perform multistep operations. Childhood influences[ edit ] The first couple of years of childhood are considered to be a vital part of life for the development of numeracy and literacy.
That is, mothers with a high level of education will tend to have children who succeed more in numeracy. On a more expressive note, the act of using complex language, being more responsive towards the child, and establishing warm interactions are recommended to parents with the confirmation of positive numeracy outcomes.
The differences in the amount of knowledge retained were greater between the three different groups at age 5, than between the groups at age 7. This reveals that the younger you are the greater chance you have to retain more information, like numeracy.
Literacy[ edit ] There seems to be a relationship between literacy and numeracy,   which can be seen in young children. In one study for example, five-month-old infants were shown two dolls, which were then hidden with a screen. The babies saw the experimenter pull one doll from behind the screen.
Without the child's knowledge, a second experimenter could remove, or add dolls, unseen behind the screen. When the screen was removed, the infants showed more surprise at an unexpected number for example, if there were still two dolls. Some researchers have concluded that the babies were able to count, although others doubt this and claim the infants noticed surface area rather than number.
Even outside these specialized areas, the lack of proper numeracy skills can reduce employment opportunities and promotions, resulting in unskilled manual careers, low-paying jobs, and even unemployment.
The Poynter Institute has recently included numeracy as one of the skills required by competent journalists.
Max Frankelformer executive editor of the New York Timesargues that "deploying numbers skillfully is as important to communication as deploying verbs ". Unfortunately, it is evident that journalists often show poor numeracy skills.
These psychometric numerical reasoning tests are used to assess an applicants' ability to comprehend and apply numbers. These tests are sometimes administered with a time limit, resulting in the need for the test-taker to think quickly and concisely.
Research has shown that these tests are very useful in evaluating potential applicants because they do not allow the applicants to prepare for the test, unlike interview questions.
This suggests that an applicant's results are reliable and accurate. Kline's published a book entitled, "A handbook of test construction: Introduction to psychometric design", which explained that psychometric testing could provide reliable and objective results.
These findings could then be used to effectively assess a candidate's abilities in numeracy.She is one of the leading researchers on the topic of Socioeconomic Status and language development. Her articles offer a wealth of knowledge that can be applied to any educator's classroom.
The American Psychological Association defines. Mar 25, · What Influences Child Development? Every child deserves the opportunity to blossom. This article will discuss environmental influences on child development, as opposed to genetic influences which are not in our power.
The world around us has a major part in shaping the child. Five Areas of Child Development. Reviews: Total Environment Assessment Model for Early Child Development 3 Executive Summary The early child period is considered to be the most important developmental phase throughout the lifespan.
This kind of stress exerts a devastating, insidious influence on children's physical, psychological, emotional, and cognitive functioning—areas that affect brain development, academic success, and social competence. English Language Learners: The Impact of Language and Socio-Cultural Factors on Learning Lori Navarrete, Nevada State College Silvana M.
R. Watson, Old Dominion. Report on Learning Disabilities Research. By: G. Reid Lyon. The psychological, social, and economic consequences of reading failure are legion.
It is for this reason that the NICHD considers reading failure to reflect not only an educational problem, but a significant public health problem as well.