Science and ethics essay

Are we to deprive ourselves of the help and guidance of that vast body of knowledge which is daily growing upon the world, because neither we nor any other one person can possibly test a hundredth part of it by immediate experiment or observation, and because it would not be completely proved if we did? Shall we steal and tell lies because we have had no personal experience wide enough to justify the belief that it is wrong to do so?

Science and ethics essay

Everything that the human race has done and thought is concerned with the satisfaction of deeply felt needs and the assuagement of pain. One has to keep this constantly in mind if one wishes to understand spiritual movements and their development.

Feeling and longing are the motive force behind all human endeavor and human creation, in however exalted a guise the latter may present themselves to us. Now what are the feelings and needs that have led men to religious thought and belief in the widest sense of the words?

Science and ethics essay

A little consideration will suffice to show us that the most varying emotions preside over the birth of religious thought and experience. With primitive man it is above all fear that evokes religious notions - fear of hunger, wild beasts, sickness, death.

Since at this stage of existence understanding of causal connections is usually poorly developed, the human mind creates illusory beings more or less analogous to itself on whose wills and actions these fearful happenings depend.

Thus one Science and ethics essay to secure the favor of these beings by carrying out actions and offering sacrifices which, according to the tradition handed down from generation to generation, propitiate them or make them well disposed toward a mortal.

In this sense I am speaking of a religion of fear. This, though not created, is in an important degree stabilized by the formation of a special priestly caste which sets itself up as a mediator between the people and the beings they fear, and erects a hegemony on this basis.

In many cases a leader or ruler or a privileged class whose position rests on other factors combines priestly functions with its secular authority in order to make the latter more secure; or the political rulers and the priestly caste make common cause in their own interests. The social impulses are another source of the crystallization of religion.

Fathers and mothers and the leaders of larger human communities are mortal and fallible. The desire for guidance, love, and support prompts men to form the social or moral conception of God. This is the social or moral conception of God. The Jewish scriptures admirably illustrate the development from the religion of fear to moral religion, a development continued in the New Testament.

The religions of all civilized peoples, especially the peoples of the Orient, are primarily moral religions. And yet, that primitive religions are based entirely on fear and the religions of civilized peoples purely on morality is a prejudice against which we must be on our guard.

The truth is that all religions are a varying blend of both types, with this differentiation: Common to all these types is the anthropomorphic character of their conception of God.

In general, only individuals of exceptional endowments, and exceptionally high-minded communities, rise to any considerable extent above this level.

But there is a third stage of religious experience which belongs to all of them, even though it is rarely found in a pure form: I shall call it cosmic religious feeling. It is very difficult to elucidate this feeling to anyone who is entirely without it, especially as there is no anthropomorphic conception of God corresponding to it.

The individual feels the futility of human desires and aims and the sublimity and marvelous order which reveal themselves both in nature and in the world of thought.EurekAlert! is an online science news service featuring health, medicine, science and technology news from leading research institutions and universities.

Sponsored by AAAS, the science society. "Wishing won't make it so" Ayn Rand’s philosophy, Objectivism, begins by embracing the basic fact that existence vetconnexx.comy is, and in the quest to live we must discover reality’s nature and learn to act successfully in it..

To exist is to be something, to possess a specific vetconnexx.com is the Law of Identity: A is A. Facts are facts, independent of any consciousness.

This section looks at the conflicts between the truth claims of science and religion.

1 Facts and Values

It also describes attempts to evaluate religion by using scientific methods -- and vice-versa. Research & writing for assignments. University assignments are a big challenge, but we can guide you. Get help with all aspects of your assignment, from research to writing.

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Menu Ethics and morality. A very brief overview of all aspects of morality: When many people see the word "morality," their first thought often relates to sexual activity of some vetconnexx.com individuals and groups, like us, use much broader definitions.

The OEC Glossary contains useful definitions for a variety of the terms commonly used on the website and within engineering and science ethics literature.

Ethics - Wikipedia