When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. APA American Psychological Association style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.
Format of Citations and References 1. Introduction As you write your term papers, it will be important for you to document where you obtained the information cited in your report. Many of the references you use will come from published sources.
Some may come from electronic sources such as the World Wide Web, Melvyl and Harvest databases available through the UC Davis library, CD references and the like, and some may come from interviews. An important component of your writing will be the effective use of reference material.
This skill will serve you well in writing papers of all types, not just those required for classes. For this class, we will be using the documentation style of the American Psychological Association APA, modified with italics substituted for underlining.
This format is very similar to that of the Modern Language Association, and these are the most commonly used styles for publishing in the social and natural sciences.
|Reference List: Basic Rules // Purdue Writing Lab||If you do not, you risk being accused of plagiarism.|
|How to Cite||By providing publication information about the sources that helped you write your paper, the reference page both grants proper credit to other researchers and demonstrates your own scholarly diligence, thereby inducting you into the world of academia.|
|Term Paper: Format of Citations and References||Although you should use these citation formats in this and other biology courses, specific formats vary considerably for individual journals. If you are trying to publish a paper in a specific journal, you will be required to follow the format of that journal.|
The general form of citations in the body of the text is to include the author and date in parentheses as above and optionally include the page number s after the date.
If the author's name was just mentioned in the text, it is not necessary to repeat it in the citation. The rules are described in more detail, with examples, in section 3. Basic Guidelines The purpose of the term paper in ECS 15 is for you to learn how to do effective research on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information.
A research paper requires searching for information pertinent to a given subject, organizing it, and presenting it effectively in written form. Oral research reports are also useful, but this course does not cover them.
In the following sections, we will present the way that we want you to cite your references in the term paper for this course. The required format meets the accepted practices cited in Li and Cranea reference that is currently considered the best authority on citing electronic sources.
This book in turn follows the basic format for the American Psychological Association APA,which is a good format though by no means the only acceptable one in technical publications.
You may be required to use slightly different formats for other papers, such as papers submitted for publication to refereed journals, each of which typically have their own styles.
Learning how to follow one such set of rules is a worthwhile exercise. You will therefore be expected to use the format set out below. In-text Citation to References When citing a reference from your reference list, please use the following conventions.
Put in parentheses the author s last names, the year, and optionally the page number s separated by commas. For one author, use the author's last name and year separated by a comma. Walters, or Austin, For more than five authors, use the first author's last name and "et al.
For the date, use the year. If there are two references by the same author s for the same year, use letters after the year: If there are specific page numbers for a citation, add them after the year Walters,pp.
If you include the author's name s in the text of a sentence in the paper, you may omit their names from the parentheses as follows: Do not use footnotes in this class for citations. You can use them for explanatory text, but not for references. Have the citation make it easy to find the reference in the "References" section.
All references in that section should be complete enough for readers to obtain a copy for themselves. Your List of References Create a list of references, one for each item cited in the paper, in a section called "References". This section goes at the end of your paper. The references are to be alphabetized by the fist author's last name, or if no author is listed the organization or title.
If you cite more than one paper by the same first author, sort them by year of publication, earliest year first.Create a list of references, one for each item cited in the paper, in a section called "References". This section goes at the end of your paper. The references are to be alphabetized by the fist author's last name, or (if no author is listed) the organization or title.
The reference page is a crucial element of your research paper; it helps you prevent plagiarism, and it proves you did your research. By providing publication information about the sources that helped you write your paper, the reference page both grants proper credit to other researchers and demonstrates your own scholarly diligence, thereby inducting you into the world of academia.
Writing a paper, especially a research paper, requires you to cite your source for any information or thoughts that are not your own.
If you do not, you risk being accused of plagiarism.
Sep 27, · How to Write a Research Paper. try looking in the works cited/bibliography/reference list at the end of it.
This should contain many more books and journals that are about your topic as well. How to. Write a Research Essay. How to. Write a Paper in a Night. How to. 80%(). When citing a reference from your reference list, please use the following conventions.
Put in parentheses the author(s) last names, the year, and optionally the page number(s) separated by commas. For one author, use the author's last name and year separated by a comma. DO NOT USE FOOTNOTES: Footnoting, although commonly done in books and other literary writing, is only rarely done in journal style papers.
Cite references in the flow of the text as shown above. Cite references in the flow of the text as shown above.