References and Further Reading 1. What it is Human nature is naturally good. At least it leans decidedly toward an awareness of the good, and a preference for it, over evil and injustice.
Evolution of brain and behavior; development of the nervous system and behavior over the life span; psychopharmacology; sensory and perceptual processes; control and coordination of movement and actions; control of behavioral states motivationincluding sex and reproductive behavior, and regulation of internal states; biological rhythms and sleep; emotions and mental disorders; neural mechanisms of learning and memory, language and cognition; and recovery Biological theories of moral development function after damage to the nervous system.
Developing from biological psychology and overlapping with parts of it are such fields as behavior genetics as well as hormones and behavior. Through all these methods, biological psychology is a hopeful domain, one that has much to offer in terms of improving the quality of life of the healthy as well as those suffering from disorders.
The focus of study of physiological psychology is the neural mechanisms of perception and behavior through direct manipulation of the brains of nonhuman animal subjects in controlled experiments.
The history of biological psychology is a major part of the history of modern scientific psychology. The study of biological psychology can be dated back to Avicenna C. He explained that "humidity" inside the head can contribute to mood disorders, and he recognized that this occurs when the amount of "breath" changes: Happiness increases the breath, which leads to increased moisture inside the brainbut if this moisture goes beyond its limits, the brain would lose control over its rationality and lead to mental disorders.
In philosophy, the first issues is how to approach what is known as the " mind-body problem ," namely the explanation of the relationship, if any, that obtains between mindsor mental processes, and bodily states or processes.
Dualism is a family of views about the relationship between mind and physical matter. It begins with the claim that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical. In Western Philosophy, some of the earliest discussions of dualist ideas are in the writings of Plato and Aristotle.
Each of these maintained, but for different reasons, that human " intelligence " a faculty of the mind or soul could not be identified with, or explained in terms of, his physical body. The question then, is how do these separate and entirely different aspects of living beings, the mind and the body, relate?
Some, like Descartes, proposed physical models to explain animal and human behavior. Descartes, for example, suggested that the pineal glanda midline unpaired structure in the brain of many organisms, was the point of contact between mind and body.
Descartes also elaborated on a theory in which the pneumatics of bodily fluids could explain reflexes and other motor behavior. This theory was inspired by moving statues in a garden in Paris. This view, that psychological processes have biological or physiological correlates, is the basic assumption of the whole field of biological psychology.
One of the earliest textbooks in the new field, The Principles of Psychology by William Jamesargues that the scientific study of psychology should be grounded in an understanding of biology: Bodily experiences, therefore, and more particularly brain-experiences, must take a place amongst those conditions of the mental life of which Psychology need take account.
The spiritualist and the associationist must both be "cerebralists," to the extent at least of admitting that certain peculiarities in the way of working of their own favorite principles are explicable only by the fact that the brain laws are a codeterminant of their result.
Our first conclusion, then, is that a certain amount of brain-physiology must be presupposed or included in Psychology. The emergence of both psychology and biological psychology as legitimate sciences can be traced from the emergence of physiology from anatomyparticularly neuroanatomy.
Physiologists conducted experiments on living organisms, a practice that was distrusted by the dominant anatomists of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The term "psychobiology" has been used in a variety of contexts, but was likely first used in its modern sense by Knight Dunlap in his book, An Outline of Psychobiology In the announcement of that journal, Dunlap writes that the journal will publish research "…bearing on the interconnection of mental and physiological functions," which describes the field of biological psychology even in its modern sense.
In many cases, humans may serve as experimental subjects in biological psychology experiments; however, a great deal of the experimental literature in biological psychology comes from the study of non-human species, most frequently ratsmiceand monkeys. As a result, a critical assumption in biological psychology is that organisms share biological and behavioral similarities, enough to permit extrapolations across species.Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
These characteristics are the expressions of genes that are passed on from parent to offspring during vetconnexx.coment characteristics tend to exist within any given population as a result of mutation, genetic recombination and other sources of genetic variation.
Applied Ethics. Under what conditions is an abortion morally permissible? Does a citizen have a moral obligation to actively participate (perhaps by voting) in the democratic process of one’s nation (assuming one is living in a democracy)?
Scientific racism (sometimes referred to as race biology, racial biology, or race realism) is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority. Historically, scientific racist ideas received credence in the scientific community but are no longer considered scientific.
Child development theories focus on explaining how children change and grow over the course of childhood. Such theories center on various aspects of development including social, . Applied Ethics. Under what conditions is an abortion morally permissible?
Does a citizen have a moral obligation to actively participate (perhaps by voting) in the democratic process of one’s nation (assuming one is living in a democracy)? Ethics, also called moral philosophy, the discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad, right and wrong. The term is also applied to any system or theory of moral values or principles..
How should we live? Shall we aim at happiness or at knowledge, virtue, or the creation of beautiful objects?If we choose happiness, will it be our own or the happiness of all?