This article says that the Celtic sea wasn't named until It was coined by EWL Holt, but when and how? Google fragments offer mixed evidence. Robinson in Scottish Geographical Magazine, Vol.
Comparatively little is known about Celtic polytheism because the evidence for it is fragmentary, due largely to the fact that the Celts who practiced it wrote nothing down about their religion. Cunliffe went on to note that "there is more, varied, evidence for Celtic religion than for any other example of Celtic life.
The only problem is to assemble it in a systematic form which does not too greatly oversimplify the intricate texture of its detail. Nonetheless, the interpretation of this evidence can be colored by the 21st century mindset.
These include the coins of the Roman provinces in the Celtic lands of Gaul, RaetiaNoricumand Britannia ,[ citation needed ] and another is the sculptures, monuments, and inscriptions associated with the Celts.
Irish and Welsh records[ edit ] Literary evidence for Celtic religion also comes from sources written in Ireland and Wales during the Middle Ages, a period when traditional Celtic religious practices had become extinct and had long been replaced by Christianity.
Celtic languages are still spoken today in parts of the British Isles and northern France. Geographical Spread Ancient writers gave the name Celts to various population groups living across central Europe inland from the Mediterranean coastal areas. There is a blend therefore of the P-Celtic and Q-Celtic culture in Scotland. Wales is an undoubted example of the P-Celtic. But Ireland, Scotland, and Wales have their own separate racial identities. ANCH – Barbarian Europe: Celts and Germans Essay 2 Question: Topic 5: Describe and assess the role of women in Celtic and/or Germanic society, how did this role differ from the role of women in Greek and Roman society? Finally, it is in the archaeological evidence that the importance of women within Celtic society is most clearly seen.
The evidence from Ireland has been recognised as better than that from Wales, being viewed as "both older and less contaminated from foreign material. While it is possible to single out specific texts that can be strongly argued to encapsulate genuine echoes or resonances of the pre-Christian past, opinion is divided as to whether these texts contain substantive material derived from oral tradition as preserved by bards or whether they were the creation of the medieval monastic tradition.
|Celtic polytheism - Wikipedia||Mythic Assessment and The Celtic Sources: The Structure and Definitions of Myth.|
Barry Cunliffe stated that "the Greek and Roman texts provide a number of pertinent observations, but these are at best anecdotal, offered largely as a colourful background by writers whose prime intention was to communicate other messages. Celtic pantheon and Celtic animism Image of a "horned" actually antlered figure on the Gundestrup cauldroninterpreted by many archaeologists as being cognate to the god Cernunnos.
Celtic religion was polytheisticbelieving in many deities, both gods and goddesses, some of which were venerated only in a small, local area, but others whose worship had a wider geographical distribution. Another example is Gaulish Brigantiacognate with Irish Brigid.
Antiquity[ edit ] Some of the Greek and Roman accounts mention various deities worshipped in Gaul; for instance Lucan noted the names of TeutatesTaranis and Esus although Julius Caesar instead conflated the Celtic Gaulish deities with those of Roman religionand did not mention their native Gaulish names.
He declared that the most widely venerated god in Gaul was Mercurythe Roman god of trade, but that they also worshipped ApolloMinervaMars and Jupiter.
Whether or not this is true, as the classical peoples grew in influence over the Celtic cultures, it encouraged the depiction of deities in human forms, and they appear to move from a more animistic-based faith to a more Romanised polytheistic view. Insular mythology[ edit ] In the Irish and to a lesser extent Welsh vernacular sources from the Middle Ages, various human mythological figures were featured who have been thought of by many scholars as being based upon earlier gods.
The historian Ronald Hutton however cautioned against automatically equating all Irish and Welsh mythological figures as former deities, noting that while some characters "who appear to be human, such as Medb or St Brigitprobably were indeed once regarded as divine Celtic animism Some scholars, such as Prudence Jones and Nigel Pennick have speculated that the Celts venerated certain trees and others, such as Miranda Aldhouse-Greenthat the Celts were animistsbelieving that all aspects of the natural world contained spirits, and that communication was possible with these spirits.
These would have been local deities, known and worshiped by inhabitants living near to the shrine itself, and not pan-Celtic like some of the polytheistic gods. The importance of trees in Celtic religion may be shown by the fact that the very name of the Eburonian tribe contains a reference to the yew treeand that names like Mac Cuilinn son of holly and Mac Ibar son of yew appear in Irish myths[ dubious — discuss ].
In Ireland, wisdom was symbolised by the salmon who feed on the hazelnuts from the trees that surround the well of wisdom Tobar Segais. Such burials were reserved for the influential and wealthy in Celtic society. Celtic burial practices, which included burying food, weapons, and ornaments with the dead, suggest a belief in life after death.
Sometimes this otherworld was claimed to exist underground, while at other times it was said to lie far to the west. Several scholars have suggested that the otherworld was the Celtic afterlife,  though there is no direct evidence to prove this.
Across Celtic Europe, many of the constructed temples, which were square in shape and constructed out of wood, were found in rectangular ditched enclosures known as viereckschanzenwhere in cases such as Holzhausen in Bavaria votive offerings were also buried in deep shafts.
According to Barry Cunliffe, "the monumentality of the Irish religious sites sets them apart from their British and continental European counterparts" with the most notable example being the Hill of Tara. Notable Gaulish examples include the sanctuary of Sequana at the source of the Seine in Burgundy and Chamalieres near to Clermont-Ferrand.
At both of these sites, a large array of votive offerings have been uncovered, most of which are wooden carvings, although some of which are embossed pieces of metal.Thus, assessing the current status of existing MPAs to form an ecologically coherent network is a logical important step in developing marine strategies for the Celtic Seas subregion.
The Celtic Seas Partnership, an EC Life+-funded project led by WWF-UK, was set up to support implementation of the MSFD in the Celtic Seas, using a stakeholder-led approach.
Talk:Celtic Sea To help assess the quality and importance of geography articles, please see: This article says that the Celtic sea wasn't named until —The preceding unsigned comment was added by When and where the . The Celtic cross, the harp, the shamrock, the triquetra and the triskele are some of the major symbols used in Celtic and Irish communities.
Themes common in Irish symbolism include love, Irish heritage, and trinities in the Christian and Celtic religions. Of these articles, the two most reputable are the BBC's article, which seems to mostly be claiming that Galicia had a Celtic past, and the Economist's article, which claimed that Galicia considers itself a Celtic nation (rather than it *is considered* a Celtic nation).
ANCH – Barbarian Europe: Celts and Germans Essay 2 Question: Topic 5: Describe and assess the role of women in Celtic and/or Germanic society, how did this role differ from the role of women in Greek and Roman society?
Finally, it is in the archaeological evidence that the importance of women within Celtic society is most clearly seen. Celtic languages are still spoken today in parts of the British Isles and northern France. Geographical Spread Ancient writers gave the name Celts to various population groups living across central Europe inland from the Mediterranean coastal areas.