The distribution terms of open-source software must comply with the following criteria:
Abstract Background Innovation through an open source model has proven to be successful for software development.
This success has led many to speculate if open source can be applied to other industries with similar success. We attempt to provide an understanding of open source software development characteristics for researchers, business leaders and government officials who may be interested in utilizing open source innovation in other contexts and with an emphasis on drug discovery.
Methods A systematic review was performed by searching relevant, multidisciplinary databases to extract empirical research regarding the common characteristics and barriers of initiating and maintaining an open source software development project.
Results Common characteristics to open source software development pertinent to open source drug discovery were extracted. The characteristics were then grouped into the areas of participant attraction, management of volunteers, control mechanisms, legal framework and physical constraints.
Lastly, their applicability to drug discovery was examined. Conclusions We believe that the open source model is viable for drug discovery, although it is unlikely that it will exactly follow the form used in software development.
Hybrids will likely develop that suit the unique characteristics of drug discovery. We suggest potential motivations for organizations to join an open source drug discovery project.
We also examine specific differences between software and medicines, specifically how the need for laboratories and physical goods will impact the model as well as the effect of patents. Well-known examples such as the Linux operating system and Apache web server have demonstrated that open source methods can create market leaders [ 12 ].
The ingredients of open source generally deemed attractive for transfer are the collaborative nature of development and the open access to the intellectual property.
Pharmaceuticals are an often mentioned example for possible transfer and adaptation. There are also several open source drug discovery projects already underway.
The Synaptic Leap hosts a project to develop a new synthesis of the schistosomiasis drug, praziquantel, and CSIR Team India Consortium hosts a project identifying new targets for tuberculosis.
These projects attempt to link up like-minded scientists globally to develop new drugs quickly without high, patent-protected prices, making medicines more accessible. This is a simplistic and ideal description of a potential utilization of open source.
To discuss the applicability of open source to other contexts seriously, we need to understand more about the phenomenon. This paper attempts to analyze the existing, empirical research regarding open source software development and single out those characteristics that are important when designing and building new open source models.
We attempt to present the evidence in such a way that it is useful for researchers, business leaders or government officials who may be interested in applying the concepts of open source to novel areas. We apply our findings specifically to drug discovery.
We have chosen a multidisciplinary and mixed-methods systematic review to present the research. A multidisciplinary approach allows for the examination of a wide range of research evaluated from multiple perspectives - economic, legal, software engineering, etc.
A systematic review is a method of evaluating large bodies of evidence in a systematic, transparent and reproducible manner [ 3 ].
The aim is to give an unbiased reproduction of the current evidence addressing the research question, what are the common characteristics and barriers of open source software development.
The myriad of "open" concepts Firstly, it is important to define what we mean by "open source" as there is a myriad of "open" concepts with considerable overlap.
The Open Source Initiative has removed much of the ambiguity with "open source" as pertaining to software with their point Open Source Definition [ 4 ], a detailed definition giving ten criteria that a license must comply with in order to be recognized as open source.
The major components are: The lines of code that comprise the source code are the instructions running the software. An individual may use all or parts of the open source software as a component in a larger software application without the requirement of a royalty or a fee.
Individuals are allowed to change or expand the open source software and distribute the newly created software.8 cool tools for data analysis, visualization and presentation Last year, we looked at 22 data analysis tools.
This year, we add 8 more to the mix. “Free” and “open source” are two terms commonly used interchangeably in the software industry. Yet, for many developers, the difference between the two is not always clear. 2. Source Code. The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form.
Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost, preferably downloading via the Internet without charge.
open source alternatives. To study the switching from proprietary to OSS, InfoCache- an indigenously Microsoft Access database, using Internet Information Service (IIS) web server on different direction than that of the original team. In the InfoCache scenario, the. QSOS (Qualification and Selection of Open Source software) is an assessment methodology proposed by ATOS Origin in and updated in It is composed of a formal method that describes a workflow to evaluate projects, a set of tools that help to apply the QSOS workflow and a community.
An open-source service, this "dataverse" network is provided by The Institute for Quantitative Social Science (IQSS) at Harvard University with over "dataverses" and nearly , data files available for .